Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Beowulf As A Hero - 1716 Words

The concept of hero is never outdated in literary. Every author has their own understanding of how a hero should be like, and all heroes live and behave differently according to the society they live in. The definition of hero is much broader than a man with superpower. In Beowulf and The Great Gatsby, both of the protagonist, Beowulf and Jay Gatsby are considered heroes in the story. Although both of them embody the values of their societies, Beowulf is a more successful hero because he truly reaches the expectations that his society has for a hero and embraces the reality, which leads him to sacrifices his life for a more worthy cause. Beowulf successfully represents the crucial values of his society including strength, bravery, and†¦show more content†¦Although he already become a highly regarded warrior, he does not become arrogant because of the honor and wealth he owns. Instead, he maintains his fine characteristics, remembers that he is always a servant that lives under his lord’s grace, and treats his lord with respect and gratitude. Overall, Beowulf is a the epitome of Anglo-Saxon warriors and society. Similarly, Gatsby also vividly embodies the social values of America in the 1920s, which are filled with American Dream and materialism. Jay Gatsby was born into a poor family in Minnesota, and he spends his own life trying to get higher social status and greater wealth through his hard work and determination. Just as the perfect American Dream portrays, every man has the equal opportunity for success if he or she tries hard enough, so every common man can become a upper class billionaire, like Gatsby. Besides living out the American Dream that a lot of people in the society yearn for, Gatsby also reveals the high degree of materialism in the society. When Gatsby dies, and his friend Nick tries to get Gatsby’s friend to attend his funeral, none of his friends wants to accept the invitation. When one of these friend called Klipspringer calls, he simply refused to come to Gatsby’s funeral and says that â€Å"what [he] called up about was a pair of shoes [he] left [in Gat sby’s house]†Show MoreRelatedBeowulf Is A Hero Of Beowulf1017 Words   |  5 PagesIn the movie and book Beowulf, Beowulf represents a hero. Beowulf is like our modern day heroes, firefighters, policemen, military men, doctors and EMT’s. All of these men do the same thing as Beowulf did in the movie. The fight the villains and protect the innocent. Beowulf had super strength to help him defeat the villains and protect the innocent. I have heard moreover that the monster scorns in his reckless way to use weapons; therefore, to heighten Hygelac s fame and gladden his heart, I herebyRead MoreBeowulf : A Hero Or Hero?1092 Words   |  5 PagesCole Jackson Miss Sibbach Honors English IV 10 December, 2014 To Be a Hero, or To Not Be a Hero Countless people have tried to say that Beowulf represents the qualities required of an epic hero, but many people also suggest that Beowulf does not show any of these qualities. While Beowulf shows heroic characteristics in all of his acts, both pride and greed motivate his actions. The story of Beowulf contains all of the information needed to show this, but people do not notice that which they do notRead MoreBeowulf the Hero1005 Words   |  5 PagesBeowulf The Hero â€Å"†¦ A fiend out of hell†(Heaney 100). These words describe the monster Grendel, who is truly an evil entity. Only an epic hero with strength, courage and confidence is able to defeat this mighty foe. This hero’s name is Beowulf. He displays all of these throughout the epic. Beowulf’s first epic hero trait is confidence. Beowulf displays confidence when he talked to Unferth in the great hall Heorot. Beowulf said, â€Å"†¦but he will find me different. I will show him how Geats shapeRead MoreHero and Beowulf1625 Words   |  7 PagesThe hero is an age-old concept that describes someone that will defend their honor to the end. In Beowulf, the author portrays the warrior Beowulf and his three battles in such a way as to clearly define what it means to be a hero. Fred Robinson and J. R. R. Tolkien addressed heroism in Beowulf regarding the warrior’s traits, as well as his battles and burial. The author of Beowulf defines the hero through Beowulf’s three battles with Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and the dragon. In this poem, eachRead MoreIs Beowulf a Hero?2129 Words   |  9 PagesIs Beowulf a hero? It is vital when approaching the question of whether or not Beowulf can be viewed as a hero to attempt to understand the concept of a ‘hero. Joseph Campbell, the American theorist, studied mythological characters and texts in great detail and developed the concept of the monomyth (or Heros Journey) which he suggested all heroes undertook: A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and aRead MoreBeowulf As A Hero910 Words   |  4 PagesWhy We Need Heros A hero, â€Å"a person noted for courageous acts or nobility of character†(â€Å"Hero†). A hero shows much more than honor and glory, they sacrifice their own life to selflessly help out the lives of others. By having heroes it gives us hope, wisdom, and justice throughout the nation. The three main types of heroes include an epic hero, superhero, and your own personal hero. These heroes show that it s more than the cape or armour they wear, they show the true meaning of a hero by definingRead MoreA Hero : A Comparison Of The Hero Of Beowulf884 Words   |  4 Pages or Ulysses. Beowulf is a great example of one of the early heroes written about. But what is a hero? The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines a hero as: an object of extreme admiration and devotion; a mythological or legendary figure often of divine descent endowed with great strength or ability. Beowulf has many of these characteristics including great strength, and is portrayed as a legendary figure by tho se who look up to him. Through the entire poem, he is the epitome of a hero and displaysRead More Beowulf: A Hero Essay782 Words   |  4 PagesBeowulf: A Hero Beowulf is a hero during the Middle Ages because of his generosity, strength, power, and courage. A hero is one who places himself or herself at great risk while performing acts of courage. Beowulf is a hero that put his life on the line for an entire kingdom. He has heroic and superhuman qualities. He must prove his worthiness of a superior warrior. He is recognized for his strengths and power of protecting his people. Beowulf is faced with three forces to fight, Grendel (a monster)Read MoreBeowulf Hero Analysis757 Words   |  4 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚   To Joseph Campbell a hero is an individual who is able to depart from his or her ordinary life for the sake of helping others in an opposite world. Campbell portrays his idea of a hero by utilizing the title character in Beowulf. Beowulf demonstrates many of Campbells stages of a hero through his strategic actions, his love for justice, and most importantly through his extraordinary strength.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The hero Beowulf, is the â€Å"strongest of the Geats-greater/ And stronger than anyone anywhere in thisRead MoreBeowulf Is a Hero Essay877 Words   |  4 PagesBeowulf Essay Every epic hero possesses certain heroic characteristics. The epic poem Beowulf describes the most heroic man of the Anglo-Saxon times. Beowulf is the hero. He shows that he is a great man by always putting other things before his own needs. He is important and needed by his people and is known by many as a strong, courageous and a helpful person. He shows all of the qualities and traits that a true hero possesses. Beowulf, like other epic heroes, possesses the following heroic qualities:

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Church Of God A Harmony That Offers Possibilities For...

Introduction One particular late afternoon of 33 AD there was that very day two men were going to a village named Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem, and they were talking with each other about all these things that had happened over the past few weeks . Just as these men that were walking down the street to the village of Emmaus, and they did not realize whom this Stranger was†¦ until their eyes were opened†¦, so has the many debates of the Church fathers from the birth of the Church and written Word, and continuing even to this day. Some of the questions that would be asked of the Church fathers may have been: Is the Word or Kingdom future or present? Is it mystical, spiritual or material? Is it the church or the world —or could it†¦show more content†¦From the very commencing of the Church with the flow of contemporary evangelical crusade, conservative Protestants have splintered, disputed, and shattered the Church, Word, who Jesus, who God, who the Holy Spirit is, and over the Heavenly Kingdom . The centuries of Church fathers and all following the second century seemed to not only debate the meanings of the Scriptures, but also questioned the reality of the Word as well. The 18th century marked the beginning of the great evangelical revivals surrounded by a number of protestant churches across the western world, in particular America and Europe. German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher was born on 21 November 1768 in Breslau, Lower Silesia; he originated writing towards the end of the century, in a knowledgeable, intellectual, philosophical, devoted to religion with the encamp using the environmentally shaping by the Enlightenment Period . Schleiermacher was an early member of the Romanticism movement in Germany. He also attempts to â€Å"reconcile † Enlightenment thought with Protestant Christianity, and maintained a very subjective/relativist approach to theology and philosophy. Schleiermacher viewed Scripture i s therefore not normative, and sought to â€Å"rescue† religion from rationalistic attacks of skeptics

Saturday, December 14, 2019

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation Free Essays

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation The Expectancy Theory of Motivation Mr. Jeffrey Kiger Western Governor’s University LET 1 Task 1 Abstract The Expectancy Theory of Motivation was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. The theory is not without its critics however, most of the evidence is supportive. We will write a custom essay sample on The Expectancy Theory of Motivation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Expectancy Theory helps to explain the motivations of employees in both a positive and negative ways. A lot of people in the workforce feel this way about their jobs or careers. Although they have probably never thought much about why they feel this way or asked themselves â€Å"what can I do to overcome these feelings? The Expectancy Theory of Motivation There are 3 relationships that are associated with the expectancy theory of motivation. The first relationship is effort-performance, which is the perception by employees that a certain amount of effort will lead to an acceptable performance standard. The second relationship that this theory explains is that individuals believe the desirable outcomes are the result of performing at a certain level. The final relationship that is related to the expectancy theory of motivation concerns the correlation between rewards and personal goals. This part explains to what degree a company’s rewards satisfy an individual’s personal needs or goals. The relationship also stresses the importance of those possible rewards for the employees. The employees seem to have a number of issues that they need to overcome in order for them to be successful with the new production process. It seems like Supervisor A is having trouble communicating and motivating with his team. All 3 of the Expectancy Theory relationships seem to be prevalent in this situation. Some of the team members don’t think that they can physically do the job. A portion of the employees feel that the new production system is too demanding for their abilities. The company needs to re-examine the processes, break them down to more basic steps, and then spend a little time retraining the production teams. The employees will then see that they can meet the production goals. Some of the other employees don’t want to do the job, they can meet the production goals but they have decided that it isn’t important enough to do so. They have determined that the effort isn’t worth it because other employees get paid the same amount even though they don’t reach the same production goals. They haven’t understood the actual relationship of performance to reward. They are putting the focus on the other employees and forgetting about themselves. The company needs to address this conflict in order to have successful production teams. The last group of employees do not think that the rewards for achieving the company’s production goals will mean much to them at the end of the week. They are obviously concerned about their personal goals of making as much money as possible each week. They are getting the reward for their effort toward the company’s production goals however, it’s not enough. These employees really have to make a decision concerning the reward versus their personal goals. In my opinion, the company needs to do 4 things to fix the issues at hand. First of all, the company needs to understand why the production goals are not reached and find solutions so that the employee can be successful. Secondly, they need to do a better job of communicating the production goals and standards. The third item that needs to change is the accountability of the employee to the production goals. Last of all, the company could even change the production levels that must be met to receive a bonus. The possibility of reaching the goals and receiving the reward/bonus will help the employee see the achievement of the performance reward relationship. Appendix Each Appendix appears on its own page. Footnotes 1Complete APA style formatting information may be found in the Publication Manual. Table 1 Type the table text here in italics; start a new page for each table [Insert table here] Figure Captions Figure 1. Caption of figure [Figures – note that this page does not have the manuscript header and page number] How to cite The Expectancy Theory of Motivation, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Honeypots Essay Example For Students

Honeypots Essay Nowadays networks which are connected to the Internet are under permanent attack by intruders and automated attacks of worms. A variety of detection tools exist such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and firewalls, but the main problem is that they only react on preconfigured and known attacks. Although there exist a number of security tools that are available today, none of these tools can easily address all of the security goals of an organization. As computer attacks evolve, new responses are essential. Thus organisations look for more advanced tools which are effective in detecting security attacks and recovering from them. In order to monitor the activities of hackers, the methodology adopted is to deceive, by giving them some emulated set of services on a system which appears to be legitimate. The hackers’ activities are then logged and monitored to gain insight into their employed tactics. This idea is adopted in Honeypots, a system whose value lies in being probed, attacked and compromised. 1. 1 What are honeypots Honeypots are an upcoming technology that can be used to detect and analyze network attacks. A honeypot is an apparently vulnerable system deployed to be hacked. Some tests have shown that honeypots are exposed to lots of known attacks and noise that hide the valuable information about new attacks and vulnerabilities. Nowadays, they are also being extensively used by the research community to study issues in network security. Using honeypots provides a cost-effective solution to increase the security posture of an organization. Through our paper we found that the use of honeypots is an effective educational tool to study issues in network security. Honeypots. dont catch only the lame hackers. Sometimes they catch the new tools and are able to reduce their effectiveness by letting security practitioners quickly react before they become widespread. They dont catch just the attackers outside our firewall but the hackers who work for our own company. They dont catch just unimportant stuff; sometimes they catch industrial spies. They can be time- and effort-consuming to set up and operate, but theyre, instructive, and a terrific way for a good guy to gain an education on computer forensics in a real-world environment. Honeypots keeps the hackers on their toes and do a lot to shatter their ense of invulnerability. Honeypots come in a variety of shapes and sizes—everything from a simple Windows system emulating a few services to an entire network of productions systems waiting to be hacked. 1. 2 ROLES OF HONEYPOTS Honeypots are unique in that they are not a single tool that solves a specific problem. Instead, they are a highly flexible technology that can fulfill a variet y of different roles. It is up to us how we want to use and deploy these technologies. A honeypot is very different from most traditional security mechanisms. Its a security resource whose value lies in being probed, attacked, or compromised. The idea of building and deploying a computer meant to be hacked seems to be mysterious. The world of hacking, of taking over a computer, has been an area of interest. As in case of other forms of crime, little has been known about how the attackers operate, what tools they use, how they learn to hack, and what motivates them to attack. Honeypots give us an opportunity to peer into this world. By watching attackers when they break into and control our honeypot, we learn how these individuals operate and why. Honeypots give us the ability to take the offensive. Traditionally, the attacker has always had the initiative. They control whom they attack, when, and how. All we can do in the security community is defend; build security measures, prevent the bad guy from getting in, and then detect whenever those preventive measures fail. As any good military strategist says,† the secret to a good defense is a good offense. † But organizations have always been limited on how they can take the battle to the attacker. But Honeypots give us the advantage by giving us control: we allow the bad guys to attack them. Chisholm Trail EssayTheir method is simple: focus on a single vulnerability, then scan as many systems as possible for that vulnerability. Persistence, not advanced technical skills, is how these attackers successfully break into a system. With almost no technical skills or knowledge, anyone can simply download tools from the Internet that do all the work for them. Sometimes these tools combine all of the activity just described into a fully automated weapon that only needs to be pointed at certain systems, or even entire networks, and then launched with the click of a button. An attacker simply downloads these tools, follows the instructions, launches the attacks, and happily hacks her way into hundreds or even thousands of systems. These tools are rapidly spreading across the Internet, giving access to thousands of attackers. What used to be a highly complex development process is now extremely simple. 1. 5. 2 Targets of Choice While script kiddies and automated attacks represent the largest percentage of attackers, the smaller, more dangerous percentage of attackers are the skilled ones that dont want anyone to know about their existence. These advanced blackhats do not release their tools. They only attack and compromise systems of high value, systems of choice. When these attackers are successful, they do not tell the world about it. Instead, they silently infiltrate organizations, collecting information, users accounts, and access to critical resources. Targets of Choice While script kiddies and automated attacks represent the largest percentage of attackers, the smaller, more dangerous percentage of attackers are the skilled ones that dont want anyone to know about their existence. These advanced blackhats do not release their tools. They only attack and compromise systems of high value, systems of choice. When these attackers are successful, they do not tell the world about it. Instead, they silently infiltrate organizations, collecting information, users accounts, and access to critical resources. Often organizations have no idea that they have been compromised. Advanced attackers can spend months, even years, no idea that they have been compromised. Advanced attackers can spend months,even years,within a compromised organization without anyone finding out. These attackers are interested in a variety of targets. It could be an online banking system, where the attacker isafter the database containing millions of credit cards. It could be a case of corporate espionage, where the attacker is attempting to infiltrate a car manufacturer and obtain research designs of future cars. Or it can be as sinister as a foreign government attempting to access highly confidential government secrets, potentially compromising the security of a country. These individuals are highly trained and experienced and they are far more difficult to detect than script kiddies. Even after they have successfully penetrated an organization, they will take advanced steps to ensure that their presence or activity cannot be detected. Very little is known about these attackers. Unlike unskilled attackers, advanced blackhats do not share the same tools or techniques. Each one tends to develop his own skills, methods, and tool sets specialized for specific activities. As such, when the tools and methods of one advanced attacker are discovered, the information gained may not apply to other advanced blackhats.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Luis Valdezs Los Vendidos free essay sample

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the play Los Vendidos, by Luis Valdez and to also discuss Chicano literature. The paper discusses the theme of the play and various critics thoughts on the theme and meaning of the work. Luis Valdez writes about Chicano issues. He uses the play to point out the inhumanity of the people who hire Mexicans and how the administration ignores their problems. Critics have called it one of the most important Chicano plays ever to be written. Los Vendidos` (the Sellouts) takes place on Honest Sanchos Used Mexican Lot, a used car lot that supplies Mexicans to government workers who need token brown-skinned people to fill various roles. Miss JIM-enez is a secretary looking for a Mexican for Governor Regans office. Someone who will not stand out too much, but will show the Governor has a `brown-skinned` person on his staff. We will write a custom essay sample on Luis Valdezs Los Vendidos or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Dark, but not too dark, and suave. `Beige, just the tone` (Valdez). He will be beige in his politics too, a `yes` man to the white politicians who keep him around so they look good.`

Monday, November 25, 2019

Raise The Red Lantern

Raise The Red Lantern The story of Raise the Red Lantern is about the life of a 19-year-old girl, Songlian who married a rich old man as his forth concubine. She was forced to marry him by her stepmother because her father had passed away. From then on, Songlian has to fight for her own power in the family, that is, to gain the chance to light up her lantern which means the master, Chen would stay with her for the night but not the other wives. However she is not happy with the rules of the house, the rivalries between wives as well as the loneliness she has to bear. She even can‚ ¡Ã‚‚ ¦t get along with her maid, Yan‚ ¡Ã‚‚ ¦er. With lots of incidents happened which finally drove her crazy.Raise the Red LanternIn the film, we can detect the low status of women in society as well as in the family. Women have to live in a closed, dictatorial house and are not allowed to work outside in the society like the master, Chen. They are either wives or concubines or servants. Though they may have little power, theirs are only a domestic ones, and their power is just to influence other women.In the family, they have to share a husband. They are just like men‚ ¡Ã‚‚ ¦s toys. Every night Chen can choose who he wants to join for the night. But what about the concubines? Standing there like prostitutes waiting for the result of whose lantern would be light up. Their life-long career is to serve men. It is clear to us that women need to depend on men in that family. Their struggle for the chance to bear a male child is the only way for them to gain a little bit more power. The film also indicates the low status of women...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Challenges for reworking corrections Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Challenges for reworking corrections - Essay Example This paper shall discuss the solution of reinvigorating a new correctional leadership. Various materials from different authors and discussions shall be used in this paper in order to support this student’s chosen solution. Clear, Cole, and Reisig (2009) discuss that a strong leadership is needed in order to solve our problems in our corrections system. They cite the case of Martin Horn who runs the New York City Rikers system. Horn’s strong leadership was able to prove that it is important for a corrections manager to act fairly and reasonably; maintain a drug-free prison system; and make transactions transparent in order to ensure the public’s confidence in it (Clear, Cole, & Reisig, 2009). The authors also point out that with strong leaders, solutions can easily and effectively be implemented through a strong and determined vision, the leader’s ability to put the right people into the right kind of work, and the leader’s strong ability to motivate people into doing their best (Clear, Cole, and Reisig, 2009). These leaders can be seen in almost every corner of the globe; and the challenge is to attract these people and entice them into joining the corrections system. In a paper submitted by Dobel (2006), and published by the US Department of Corrections, he points out the importance of a strong leader who is ethical and mindful of his values. The author sets forth that since a leader holds a position of authority, most especially in an important area such as corrections, he is bound into a complicated system of obligations and responsibilities. A leader has to answer and be responsible for and to his colleagues, superiors, peers, offenders, and other clients (victims, the family members of the victims, and the offenders themselves) (Dobel, 2006). If the leader and the different corrections staff fail, then the corrections system itself can suffer the consequences.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

History of Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

History of Art - Essay Example His originality revealed itself in abundant forms, comprising oil portraits, statue, sketch and architecture1. Circumstances of his work Blue passe His work between 1901 and 1904 introduced him to the global audience. He painted circumstantial extracts of entertainers, beggars, and prostitutes, all in tenors of blue2. He was inclined by his journey over Spain, and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas, who committed suicide by firing himself in the veracious temple on February17, 1901. This dramatic event influenced his paintings greatly, with numerous paintings of the deceased. The most renowned work during this era was â€Å"self-portrait† in 1901, and â€Å"La vie† in 1903. This period in his career is referred to as the blue period. His work was submersed in blue, with this particular coloring passing on a gloomy tone. As one of the founders of modern art, the blue period marvelous manifestation of poetic refinement and subjective melancholy greatly contribu ted to the evolution of Picasso’s style from classicism to abstract art. Rose Passe Amid 1905 and 1906, his work arose to ease significantly, conveying in an idiosyncratic fawn or rose nature. The subject matter also is not as much of misery. This transformation in subject material and palette might ought to been due to his more contented conditions, for he was in a relationship with a married woman named Fernande Olivier, whom turned down his marriage proposal for she was already married, but stayed his mistress for nine years. This period ensued in a chief portrait called La Famille de Saltimbanques, or the Acrobats in 1905. This painting displays a family of entertainers on what appears like to be desolate scenery or a desert. Other significant portraits during this era include, Garcon a la Pipe 1904, La Toilette 1906, and Harlem 1906. Many experts agree that Harlem was the precursor to his famous Les Demoiselles D’Avignon. Encounter of Cubism Towards the end of 190 6, he started to splatter in a justly innovative style. He was stirred by Cezanne’s compacted portrayal of space, and working together with his friend George Braque, he arose to direct space in powerfully geometrical footings. Cezanne was not predominantly concerned in generating an impression of depth in his portrait and he abandoned the custom of perception drawing. George Braque had considered Cezanne’s method of demonstrating three dimensions. With this knowledge, he and Picasso became good friends, and by making use of numerous viewpoints, they attained the notion of representing an object as perceived from diverse views unconventionally. These efforts are the beginning of cubism. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon signifies Picasso’s epoque nerge, which was stimulated by African art and edges the first stage in Cubism, which is called analytical cubism. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, is a biased painting of five nude women in postures evocative of sexual invite. Analysts argue it is a representation of the ferocity and hostility inherent in sexuality. Rough line sketch, primeval and immature, in which the women in the painting have conventional faces and gazing eyes, depicts pure naivety of majority of women in that era. On the other hand, critics argue that Picasso envisioned it to be a very provocative image, suggesting the inborn

Monday, November 18, 2019

Price Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Price Analysis - Essay Example The basis of certain agreed conditions such as the quality and the time taken to perform the contract determines the price. Some government contracting characteristics affect fair and competitive pricing. The characteristics are usually statutory and regulatory limitations. Decision to contract: This entails determination of need. Fulfillment of the standard of competition must be achieved when the contractor can conclude that the submission of the proposal adhered to expectation of competition. In order to predict the expected price of an acquisition we consider two components, the Purchase consideration and other costs directly associated with the acquisition (Drury, 2008). Purchase consideration includes assets exchanged, liabilities assumed, and Shares issued. Other costs include accounting fees, consultancy fees and legal fees incurred. Direct costs are production costs that can be directly identified and assigned to the final product. Indirect costs are general expenditures incurred for various or shared projects, activities and thus cannot be specifically identified with the final product. Direct costs can be allocated on the usage basis, time basis, effort basis, square footage basis and clients served allocation basis (Drury, 2008). Indirect costs maybe identified as fixed costs, and their allocation is usually easy. This includes salaries and wages allocation to managers and other personnel not directly engaged in the production process. Rent and office supplies are charged to each department. In this department, machines and other fixed assets undergo depreciation. Cost analysis is the examination of distinct elements e.g., labor that constitute a contractors total cost proposal or the price to determine if they are appropriate (Murphy, 2009). Whenever one is, comparing lump sum prices the use of the cost and price analysis becomes essential.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Improving Car Chassis Stiffness

Improving Car Chassis Stiffness Introduction The purpose of the project is to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of the existing car chassis, without disturbing the shape provided for engine mountings and drivers space and other constraints provided by the existing chassis model. Why is it so important to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of the chassis? In general to define chassis in this way, first a clear meaning of structure should be known. In general perspective a structure can be defined as a specific arrangement of material to resist loads. This structure should also enable to the location of the components such as engine mountings, transmission, fuel tank, suspension system etc. So it must resist loads without breaking, and without more deflection. If the chassis cannot resist loads it leads to a serious handling problems, and will not support the engine and transmission system, also the chassis should be light enough to maintain weight to power ratio and better handling in corners. 1.1 Background to project The principle loads that includes on the chassis are, by the engine, the aerodynamics, brakes, road irregularities, the inertia loads due to masses under accelerations and vibrations. Also the chassis must with stand impact loads, having absorbed part of crash energy by deformation which includes the bending, torsion, combined bending and torsion, also lateral and longitudinal loads. So the chassis structure should be strong in stiffness in design case rather than strength. The chassis and body developments should also reduce weight because it improves the vehicle ride, handling, improves the performance of car by reducing the drag because of high weight to power ratio, and also will reduce the need for power there by increases the fuel efficiency. Because of this now even mass produced passengers cars lightened up by the most detailed weight-watcher engineering techniques due to corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations of the federal government. Lighter vehicle requires less power, hence less fuel, for equal performance. History The demand for the chassis with high torsion stiffness and low weight had increased from the World War 2. This demand had led to the innovation of many kinds such as Space frame, stressed skin etc. These types had become universal among the European road race cars following its appearance in the Lotus MK and the Mercedes-Benz 300SL in 1952. These are the cars which used strictly space frame chassis and the attention they received had popularized the idea. Major automobile industries in present era are purchasing the competitive vehicles and disassembled them carefully to study the weight and stiffness of car for comparison with the equivalent part of their own vehicle. So this lead to a competitive reasons than for increase fuel economy. Today have been included to expand the following three reasons: A means for recognising opportunities for overall weight reduction for better fuel economy. The means for determining centre of gravity (CG) location and polar moment of inertia. Detail weight estimates provides target figure of cost estimates of all parts. To resist inertial loads under accelerations, accidents etc. Structural efficiency A designer can achieve enough stiffness for a chassis from any form of construction, if enough material is used. This is not the criteria of a designer, to assess the efficiency of structure its stiffness must be considered in relation to the weight. The below shows the absolute increase in stiffness achieved in recent years is the increase in stiffness to weight ratio. Vehicle year Torsional stiffness(lb-ft/degree) Structure weight (lb) Stiffness/weight ratio Lotus 21 F1 1961 700 82.0 8.5 Lotus 24 F1 1962 1,000 72 13.9 Mc Laren F1 1966 11,000 Na Na Lotus 79F1 1979 3,000 95 31.6 Lotus 79 F1 Late 1979 5,000 85 58.8 Lotus F1 1980 10,000 75 133.33 Lola F1 1993 30,000 80 375 Table1: Demand for increase in structural efficiency. Literature Review Introduction: The loads that are experienced on a chassis are light commercial loads due to normal running conditions are considered. That is caused as the vehicle transverses uneven ground as the driver performs various manoeuvres. Basically there are five load cases to consider. Bending case. Torsion case. Combined bending and torsion case. Lateral loading. Fore and aft loading. 2.1.1. Bending case This type of loading is caused due to the weight of components distributed along the frame of the vehicle in the vertical plane which causes the bending about y-axis. The bending case depends mainly on the weight of the major components in the car and the payload. First the static condition is considered by determining the load distribution along the vehicle. The axle reaction loads are obtained by resolving the forces and by taking the moments form the weights and positions of the components. 2.1.2. Torsion case The vehicle body is subjected to the moments applied at the axels centrelines by applying both upward and downward loads are at the each axle in this case. Because of this it results in a twisting action or torsion moment about x-axis of the vehicle. The condition of pure torsion does not exist on its own because of the vertical loads always exist due to gravity. However for the calculation purpose the pure torsion is assumed. The maximum torsion moments are based on loads at the lighter loaded axle, its value can be calculated by the wheel load on the lighter loaded axle multiplied by the wheel track. The loads at the wheels are shown in the above figure. So the torsion moment is given as: RF  tf =  RR  tr 2 2 Where tf  and tr  are front and rear track respectively and R  f  and Rr  are front and rear loads. These loads are based on the static reaction loads but dynamic factors in this case are typically 1.3 for road vehicles (Pawlowski, 1964). 2.1.3. Combined bending and torsion In practice the torsion will not exist without bending as gravitational forces are always present. So the two cases must be considered when representing a real situation. Fig3: combined bending and torsion. 2.1.4. Lateral loading This type of loading is experienced by the vehicle at the corner or when it slides against a Kerb, i.e. loads along the y-axis. The lateral loads are generated while cornering at the tyre to ground contact patches which are balanced by the centrifugal force MV2  / R, M stands for vehicle mass, V vehicle velocity , R is the radius of the corner. The disaster occurs when the wheel reactions on the inside of the turn drop to zero, that means that the vehicle ready to turn over. In this case vehicle will be subjected to bending in x-y plane. The condition that applies to the roll over is shown in the below figure and it also depends up on the height of the vehicle centre of gravity and the track. At this particular condition the resultant of the centrifugal force and the weight that passes along the outside wheels contact patch. And hence lateral acceleration is V2/R=gt/2h Lateral force at the centre of gravity MV2/R = Mgt/2h. Front tyre side forces YF  = Mgt b/2h(a+b). At the rear tyres YR  = Mgt a/ 2h(a+b). From the lateral acceleration it is clear that it is t/2h times that of the gravitational acceleration. Kerb bumping will cause high loads and will roll over in exceptional circumstances. And also this high loads will cause in the bending in the x-y plane are not critical as the width of the vehicle will provide the sufficient bending strength and stiffness. 2.1.5. Fore and aft loading At the time of acceleration and breaking longitudinal forces will come into picture along the x-axis. Traction and braking forces at the tyre to ground contact points are reacted by mass times acceleration inertia forces as shown in below figure. The important cases such as bending, torsion, bending and torsion will come into play as these determine the satisfactory structure (Pawlowski, 1964). Longitudinal loading At the time of vehicle accelerates or decelerates, the inertia forces are generated. The loads generated can be transferred from one axle to another by the inertia forces as the centre of gravity of the vehicle is above the road surface. While accelerating the weight is transferred from front axle to the rear axle and vice versa at the time breaking and decelerating condition. To have a clear picture of forces acting on the body a height of the centres of gravity of all structures are required. And its not so easy to determine. A simplified model considering one inertia force generated at the vehicle centre of gravity can provide useful information about the local loading at the axle positions due to breaking and traction forces. Front wheel drive, the reaction on the driving wheel is: RF = Mg(L-a) Mh(dV/dt) L Rear wheel drive, the reaction on the driving wheel is: RR = Mga + Mh(dV/dt) L In braking case the reactions on the axles are: RF = Mg(L-a) + Mh(dV/dt) L 2.1.6. Allowable stresses From the above discussed loads it is clear that it will induce stresses in all over the structure. So it is important that under the worst load conditions that the stresses induced into the structure are kept to acceptable limits. In consideration of the static loads of a limited amount should give a stress level certainly below the yield stress. If analysed the bending case for a road gong car is considered the maximum allowable stress should be limited as follows: Stress due to static load Ãâ€"Dynamic factor ≠¤ 2/3Ãâ€" yield stress. The above equation says that under any worst load condition the stress should not exceed 67% of the yield stress. Alternatively the safety factor against yield is 1.5 for the worst possible load condition. 2.1.7 Bending stiffness It is equally important to consider the bending stiffness weather to say the structure is sufficiently strong or not. So an equal and important assessment is given to the structural stiffness. Therefore many designers consider the stiffness is most important than strength. It is possible to design a structure which is sufficiently strong but yet unsatisfactory because of insufficient stiffness. Designing for acceptable stiffness is therefore often more critical than designing for sufficient strength. For vehicles the bending stress is determined by the limits of deflection of the side frame door apertures. In case of excessive deflection the doors will not shut properly. Local stiffness of floor is also important because it minimises the safety of the passenger. 2.1.8 Torsion stiffness If the stiffness is low the driver may feel that the vehicle in front will be shaking with the front wing structures moving up and down. The practical problems of doors failing to close properly will also be seen. A similar thing will be seen in the jacking points that are positioned at the corners of the vehicle. For fast moving cars the torsion stiffness is very important because it may cause serious handling problems. Therefore care should be taken in maintaining sufficient torsion stiffness. So from the all above dimensions of forces and handling of a vehicle chassis should be stiff enough and also should be less in weight. 2.1.9 Chassis types Chassis are classified into several types they are: Ladder frames. Cruciform frames. Torque tube back bone frame. Space frame. Monocoque. In the present era of automotive industry designers are using the space frame and monocoque for the justification of design problems and to sufficient structural stiffness. Space frame A space frame chassis is a development of four tube chassis, both of them look quite similar. But the space frame differs in several key areas and offers very good advantages when compared to the predecessor. A space frame is an arrangement of many straight tubes in which the loads acting are either in tension or compression. The figure below shows the clear idea of a space frame. But from the above figure it is clear that the diagonal member is pulled in tension when a load is acted on it. This above illustration is the simple idea of the space frame chassis. This experiencing of loads in either tension or compression is a major advantage. So none of the tubes will be subjected to the load will tend to bend in the middle. Since the space frames are very good in torsion stiffness. The three dimensional space frame chassis are used for specialist cars such as sports racing cars. This type of vehicle design is used for low volume and mass production as well. In this type of structure it is imperative to ensure that all planes fully triangulated by doing so the beam elements are essentially loaded in tension and compression. In the space frame welded joints are done it retains bending and torsion at the joints, but to rely on this restrains will render the structure less stiff. The stiffness is provided by the diagonal member subject to direct tension or compression. Space frame principles A space frame is three dimensional arrangements of tubes loaded in pure tension and compression. The joints between them can be replaced by the ball joints without affecting the stiffness. Other important feature is all loads enter and leave the structure at the points of intersection of three or more tubes. The structural elements do not have to be tubes and the joints do not have to be welded. In terms of torsional stiffness the space frame attempts to connect the four spring anchorages so that is impossible to twist the pair without stretching and compressing the tube. AIMS The first thing to undertake this research is to set some basic aims that need to be achieved. As the aim of the project is stated to reduce the weight and increase the stiffness of existing vehicle chassis. So the main aims are in terms of weight, stiffness, and size. 3.1. Weight Weight was a main consideration in the research it is very crucial to reduce it to that of original weight. It helps in improving the weight to power ratio, better fuel efficiency and performance. 3.2. Stiffness It is also another key factor to be considered in the research. The stiffness must be improved to that of existing one in case of torsion, bending. 3.3. Size Last but not the least, the above reduction in weight and increase in stiffness must be achieved without effecting the size and shape of the chassis. This is important because it should not affect the driver to get in the car, and appearance of the car. And also the constraints set for the positioning of the engine etc should not be changed. 3.4. Requirements Certain requirements beyond my research boundary and aims are needed to be specified, to make up and achieving success in my research they are: The elements in the space frame which should not disturb must be specified. The dimensions of the chassis, and the materials used must be specified. The specification of the loads on the chassis. The original weight of the chassis which is going to be modified. The stiffness that chassis must be in terms of torsion, bending. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are: To analyse the original chassis, its structure, weight, stiffness, torsion, and materials used. Research the characteristics of space frame chassis and discover the effects with respect to vehicle handling and performance in case of bending and torsion loads. The benefits and performance of materials when replaced by the original one in terms of weight and stiffness. The research should be done with resources available. From testing and changing the elements, dimensions other than the constraints in lab, modifying the improvements in chassis. Analysing the results to that of the original chassis and comparing. Research Questions What are the materials used for the chassis construction? What are positions in the chassis which should not be disturbed? What is maximum allowable weight, stiffness and loads that being subjected by the chassis? What will be effect on stiffness and weight if certain elements of the chassis were replaced by the other materials? If the diameter and size of the elements were changed what will be the effect on weight and stiffness? If the positions of the elements other than the elements which should not be disturbed, i.e. by mix and matching, replacing the positions. What will be the effect on stiffness and weight? If the circular tube cross-sectional elements of the chassis in some areas are replaced by square tube cross-sectional elements, what will be the effect on stiffness and weight? Research Approach and Design 6.1. Introduction The problem being researched is quantitative rather than qualitative. It deals in numerical values and variables, predetermined categories, focuses on specific knowledge and control of variables. The approach of this research is different to that of qualitative research which would involve human subjects, questionnaires and interviews. The approach will be analytical which will include experimental analysis, analysing the data, interpreting the results, comparisons etc. 6.2. Approach and design The research is about how to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of existing vehicle chassis. The research is based on a lot of literature, experimental design and analysis. It should be well designed, planned and managed to ensure that the results can be analysed, interpreted and presented. Throughout the period of the research a process was followed to produce a successful report on the analysis done with that of the original chassis they are: Setting some benchmarks in regarding to the design of chassis. Analyse the previous chassis, and getting an idea in terms of stiffness, weight, shape. Developing the modelling, and analysing techniques that allows the process to be simple and can be modified easily. Gaining the information regarding the dimensions of the chassis from the designers and the areas in the chassis which should not be disturbed in terms of design. Looking for the possibility of the new considerations that were not previously included in the design. Considering the feedback of the supervisor as the process of the research goes on. 6.3. Experiment design It includes a statement of problem to be solved. Before going to do the research on the experimental design it is important to consider all points of view of what the experiment is intended to do. 6.3.1 Response variable The problem must include reference to at least on characteristic of a unit on which information is to be obtained. Those characteristics are called response or dependent variables. In this research the response variables are weight and stiffness, which are dependent on material, design, etc. In addition to reference of the response variable, some questions should be asked. They are measurements methods, what tools are required to measure the variable? Can variable can be measured accurately or not? 6.3.2 Independent variables The variables which control the response variables are called Independent variables. In this piece of work the independent variables are: Load on the space frame chassis. Material used for the chassis. Design of the chassis. Size and shape. The independent variables will be chosen randomly one at a time or by considering more than one independent variable. The response on the dependent are analysed and compared to that of original chassis. 6.3.3. Design Before the data is collected and results are drawn, it is important to know how to solve the problem with a limited amount of time and available resources. It is important to note how many observations should be taken, what is the maximum amount of deviation in terms of stiffness and weight in comparable to original one. Also attention is required in handling the independent variables. 6.3.4. Analysis comparison The final step in the experiment is to compare the results of the optimised chassis to that of the results on the original one, and approach the problem by checking and comparing the results. This will be done by the preparation of the graphical displays of the values in terms of weight and stiffness. Its important to make sure that the results are within the prescribed limits. If its not, follow the investigation again by controlling the independent variables. 6.4. FSAE chassis Rules and Requirements. There are some rules that must be followed throughout the design and construction of chassis. If these rules are not followed strictly the FSAE car will be eliminated from the competition. The rules that have to be followed are. Structural requirements. Minimum material requirements. Alternative tubing and material. Steel tubing requirements. Aluminium tubing requirements. Composite material requirements. Roll hoops requirements. Tube frames. 6.4.1 Structural requirements. The structure of the vehicle must include two roll hoops, front bulk head with support system and impact Attenuator, and side impact structures. 6.4.2 Minimum material requirements. Baseline Steel Material. The structure of the car must be constructed with: Round, mild or alloy, steel tubing (minimum 0.1% carbon) of the minimum dimensions according to the following table. Item or Application Outside diameter Ãâ€" Wall thickness Main and Front hoops, Shoulder harness mounting bar. inch (25.4 mm) x 0.095 inch (2.4 mm) 25.0 mm x 2.50 mm metric Side Impact Structure, Front Bulkhead Roll Hoop Bracing, Drivers Restraint Harness attachment. inch (25.4mm) Ãâ€" 0.0065 inch (1.65mm) or 25.0mm Ãâ€" 1.75mm metric or 25.4mm Ãâ€"1.60mm metric. Front bulk head support. 1.0 inch (25.4mm) Ãâ€" 0.049 inch (1.25 mm) Or 25.0 mm Ãâ€"1.5 mm metric or 26.0mm Ãâ€" 1.2 mm metric. Table 6.4.2: Minimum material requirements. (Source: FAE rules 2008) Alternative Tubing and Material The chassis can be constructed with alternative tubing and material but not for the Main Roll Hoop and Main Roll Hoop Bracing. These must be constructed only with the Steel, to say in other words the use of Composites and other materials such as Aluminium or alloys are strictly prohibited. If the chassis was to constructed with alternate tubing rather than material, the tubing must not be thinner than as shown below. Minimum wall thickness for steel tubing requirements Material and Application: Minimum wall thickness: Steel tubing for front and Main Roll Hoops 2.0 mm (0.079 inch) Steel tubing for Roll hoop Bracing, Front bulk head drivers harness attachment. 1.6 mm (0.063 inch) Steel tubing for side impact structure front bulk head support. 1.2 mm (0.047 inch) Table Minimum wall thickness for steel tubing requirements Source: FSAE 2008 rules. Aluminium tubing requirements Minimum wall thickness: Material Application : Minimum wall thickness: Aluminium tubing 3.0 mm (0.118 inch) Table Aluminium tubing requirements. (Source: FSAE 2008 rules). 6.4.3. Roll Hoops The Roll hoop design criteria must justify the following: Main Hoop The drivers head and hands must not contact the ground in any rollover attitude. The frame must include both Main Hoop and Front Hoops The Main Hoop must be constructed of single uncut tubing made of steel as per the minimum tubing requirements. The use alternate material is prohibited for construction of main hoop. The main hoop must extend from the lowest member on one side of the frame, to the down towards the lowest Frame member on the other side of the frame. In the side of the car the portion of the attachment of the Main Roll Hoop which lies above the attachment point of the main structure of the frame must be within 10 degrees to the vertical. The vertical members of the Main Hoop must be at least 380mm apart at the location where the Main Hoop is attached to the Major Structure of the Frame. In the Front view of the vehicle. Front Hoop The Front Hoop must be constructed of closed structure of steel as minimum tubing requirements. The use composite materials are prohibited. The Front Hoop Frame member must extend from one side of the Frame, to the down over and towards the lowest Frame member on the other side of the Frame. The top most surface of the Front Hoop should not be below the top of the steering wheel in any angular position. The front Hoop should be no more than 250 mm forward of the steering wheel when measured horizontally through the vehicle centre line. No part of the Front Hoop should be inclined at not more than 20 degrees in the side view. Main Hoop General Requirements A straight line drawn from the top of the main hoop to the top of the front hoop must be clear by 50.8 mm of the helmet of the teams drivers and the helmet of a 95th  percentile male. When seated normally and restrained by the Drivers Restraint system. 95th Percentile Male Template Dimensions A two dimensional template used to represent the 95th percentile male is made to the following dimensions: A circle of diameter 200 mm (7.87 inch) will represent the hips and buttocks. A circle of diameter 200 mm (7.87 inch) will represent the shoulder/cervical region. A circle of diameter 300 mm (11.81 inch) will represent the head (with helmet). A straight line measuring 490 mm (19.29 inch) will connect the centres of the two 200 mm circles. A straight line measuring 280 mm (11.02 inch) will connect the centres of the upper 200 mm circle and the 300 mm head circle. The 95th percentile male template will be positioned as follows: the seat will be Source: FSAE rules 2008. 6.4.4. Front Impact Structure The drivers feet are always with in the Major structure of the Frame. No part of the drivers feet should be above or outside the Frame in the side and front views, while touching the pedals. Forward of the Front bulk head must be energy- absorbing Attenuator. Bulk Head The requirements of the Bulk head in a Front impact structure are: It should be constructed of closed section tubing.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

The Mind, Music, And Behavior :: essays research papers

The Mind, Music, and Behavior abstract The main purpose of the paper is to investigate and present the relationship between the mind, music, and human behavior. For this purpose, research is presented on previous works and studies that link music with the mind. Based on this research, music increases neurotransmitter levels. Soft or mellow music has a tendency to promote tranquillity, while music with tempo sometimes distracts. Human memories can be cued by music, and music can promote improved learning. The brain is a two and a quarter pound piece of living organic tissue that controls the human nervous system. Music is a collection of sound waves that propagate through the air, and has varying frequencies and tones following a discernible order. Yet we all recognize the significance of the brain beyond its physical function. Our minds are the essence of what we are. The brain enigmatically stores memories, and lets people experience such things as emotion, sensations, and thoughts. In the same sense, music is more than just a collection of vibrations. This leads to the question of how does music affect the mind, and in addition, how does music affect human behavior? The reader might ask why such a question should be relevant. If more is known about the psychological and neurophysiological effects of music on the human mind, then the possibilities of this knowledge are unbounded. Music can be used to treat social and behavioral problems in people with disabilities. The use of music in the classroom might enhance or weaken a student's work characteristics. Therefore, whether the influence of music is positive or negative, much needs to be explored about the link between the mind and music. Physiologically, the brain receives information about sound waves from the ear through the auditory nerve. This information is then processed by the brain and analyzed for the juxtaposition of melody and rhythm. The mixture of melody and rhythm is what we commonly refer to as music. However, our minds interpret this auditory information as more than just sound signals; somehow, we are able to differentiate between certain types of music, and develop preferences for these different types. Yet, what are the ways in which the effects of music manifest themselves? First, there are particular biochemical responses in the human body to music. Research shows that college students, when listening to music, have more galvanic skin response peaks, as opposed to when they were not listening to music. This research also indicates a significant decrease of norepinephrine levels in students while they listen to "preferred" music. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that arbitrates chemical communication in the sympathetic

Monday, November 11, 2019

My country Essay

PERSONAL PROFILE NAME: Nyarko, Christa Akosua DATE OF BIRTH: 22ndDecember, 1985 PLACE OF BIRTH: Hwidiem REGION: Brong Ahafo NATIONALITY: Ghanaian RELIGION: Christianity LANGUAGES SPOKEN: Twi and English MARTAL STATUS: Single CONTACT NUMBER: 0200400321 E- MAIL ADDRESS: christanyarko@rocketmail.com EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND YEAR INSTITUTION ATTENDED QUALIFICATION June Jul 2012 University of Ghana (ISSER) Cert. in Project Cycle Management 2005?2009 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology B.A. Economics 2001?2004 Kumasi Girl’s Senior High School S.S.C.E 1998?2001 O.L.A Junior High School B.E.C.E Other Training: Valid First Aid Certificate awarded by St. John Ambulance at African Underground Mining Services , Newmont Ahafo Plant site (Subika Project) WORK EXPERIENCE African Underground Mining Services (A.U.M.S), Kenyasi (Feb. 2011- May 2013) Position held: Mine Controller/ Dispatcher Department: Mining Responsibilities: Trucking of Haulage for Optimum production Coordinating people, machinery and equipment to achieve optimal production in accordance with mine plan priorities. Serve as central communication person for mine production and safety, including emergency events and also as the central point of information for the mines site Capturing, validate and record mine site data through the modular mining system. Fostering a positive and productive working relationship among team members and with other departments. Monitoring effective and efficient mining methods. Completing shift and production reports in an efficient and timely manner. Liaise with Production Supervisors, Mine Engineering and Mine Management. Ensuring that information required for making production decisions is readily available and accurate. Responsible for writing the Daily shift reports and Newmont Daily reports for managerial production meeting Organizing, planning and prioritizing work – Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize to successfully accomplish work Maintain a strong communication and operational coordination for mining activities Assist production supervisor in identifying potential process problems that may impact on daily plan and facilitate alternatives

Friday, November 8, 2019

Cloning morality essays

Cloning morality essays Currently with technology advancing rapidly in every aspect of life, is it possible that humans can recreate themselves. This big ethical and moral question is on the minds of almost every person in the world. Should we as a human race make duplicates of ourselves? There are several things to look at and to consider when making decisions based on God like proportions. There are health risks from mutation of genes. An abnormal baby would be a nightmare come true. The emotional risks could have a deep impact. For instance, the child grows up knowing her mother is her sister, her grandmother is her mother. Every time her mother looks at her, she is seeing herself growing up. There would be unbearable emotional pressures on a teenager trying to establish his or her own identity. What happens to a marriage when the "father" sees his wife's clone grow up into the exact replica (by appearance) of the beautiful 18 year old he fell in love with 35 years ago? A sexual relationship would of cou rse be with his wife's twin, no incest involved technically. There are always the risks of abuse of technology. With a God like technology like cloning, the risks could be less as risky as why someone would want a clone of someone else or of themselves. Reasons why people want human cloning may be rational or irrational. That is not the point. The fact is that a recent US survey conducted by CNN found that 6% of US citizens think human cloning could be quite a good idea. Just a few of the reasons people may want to clone could include bizarre ideas. A person may want to recover someone who was lost as a twin or just a reminder. Someone else may have infertility issues and rather than use donated sperm and eggs, why not use a cell of ones own self to give birth to "yourself", ones own twin? Other reasons would include: Eugenics - an attempt to improve the human race, Megalomania - a desire to reproduce one's own qualities, Assisting medical ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

A Christian White Mans View On Immigration

A Christian White Mans View On Immigration Free Online Research Papers A couple years ago, I attended what were called The Rollins Lectures at Baptist University of the Americas. The topic was immigration. All but two of the panelists were basically rehashing the same old erroneous ‘open borders propaganda’ that has been spewed for years. Needless to say, the scales were tipped heavily to one set of beliefs on the issue. What is worse is that these panelists invoked GOD and HIS WORD in a poor attempt to back up their position. At best, this was done in pure ignorance of Biblical truth and reality in general, which ignorance is itself wrong in God’s eyes, at worst, this was outright heresy! I will address this improper use of the Bible a bit later in this paper. For now, I will address a few of the secular arguments used by the ‘open borders’ crowd†¦and specifically the panelists of this lecture series. A popular argument is that these illegal immigrants will do work Americans refuse to do. WHAT?! Before the incredible invasion of our borders, Americans WERE doing the same jobs! The difference was that Americans expected a decent wage for an honest day’s work. Illegals are willing to take a severe pay cut by American standards, though not by their own, just to be in America thus corporate and political America saw their greedy aspirations become a reality. By preventing illegal entry into our great nation, we are preventing the exploitation of human beings! Is that not a Christian way to act? If they were just willing to enter legally AND the bureaucratic process was actually one based in sanity, these same people could be making three and four times what they can get under the table due to being illegal. Isn’t that the more ideal way to provide for a family? In the last two years, I have had the opportunity to be in our nation’s capital three times. It is no surprise to me that the politicians there spout off about Americans refusing to do certain work. 98% of the whites in the metropolitan D.C. area are either in Congress, the White House or work for politically (power) oriented businesses. The cabbies, hotel bellhops and skycaps at the airport are primarily from African or Middle Eastern nations. Suffice it to say, the view from Capitol Hill is a tad skewed, to say the least. Let’s examine the impact of illegal immigration on the American economy for just a moment. When illegals come here looking for work, they send more of what they earn BACK to their home countries than they spend in America. This is not a help to America’s economic growth. Emergency rooms throughout the border states in particular fill up with illegals when they or their families that they have brought with them get sick. Who pays that bill? It is NOT them. Taxpayers foot the bill. Yes, some illegals pay taxes, but this is because of fraudulent use of someone else’s social security number, or a ‘legit’ social security number that is obtained because our government does not follow through properly in all its checks and balances. As noted in a KGTV report, Illegal Immigration Could Cost Taxpayers Trillions, The influx of illegal immigrants has effectively imported about 10 million high school dropouts into the United States, said Robert Rector, a senior research fellow in welfare and family issues for the Washington, D.C.-based think tank. Don’t we have enough of our own drop-outs in San Antonio (i.e. the Westside), much less the rest of America that we need to deal with? Just being poor or wanting to come here is not a valid reason to violate the national sovereignty of the United States. If so, most of the world would be here. While we already devote considerable resources to our resident poor, the USA does not have the resources for all the worlds poor. It is also important to note, God does not obligate us to fix the poverty of the entire planet anywhere in the Bible. While a smaller percentage than most countries, the US has our own resident poor and uneducated to take care of and, as rich as the country is, we simply cannot support all the poor and uneducated who want to come here. We are but one nation out of nearly 300 throughout the world. Are we being the best Christian stewards of our resources, which God requires us to be, when we continue to support those who violate our laws and sovereignty? As reported by Bruce Barton in Totalization Sell-Out: What You Dont Know will Cost You: the Commissioner of the U.S. Social Security Administration (Jo Anne Barnhart) and her Mexican counterpart concluded the U.S.-Mexican Totalization Agreement. This agreement had to be in place prior to the administrations second term and its all-out offensive for Social Security reform. This agreement would allow illegal aliens working in the U.S. to qualify for Social Security benefits with as few as six coverage credits, as opposed to the 40 now required of American workers. Additionally, illegal workers could qualify for partial benefits after only 18 months (working illegally and with a false identity), while the American worker would still have to work 10 years in order to vest in the program. Lastly, families and dependents of illegal workers would be entitled to benefits as dependents and survivors, even if not residing in the U.S.† Sounds to me like I ought to cross the border into Mexico, and come BACK across the border without proper paperwork so I can get illegal status and have to do HALF the work of a citizen to get the same benefits! The report goes on to say â€Å" The Social Security Administrations estimate is that only about 50,000 Mexican workers (both legal and illegal) will enter the program in its first year at a cost of $78 million. This ignores the fact that presently there are an estimated 12 to 18 million undocumented Mexicans now in the American workforce. In 2004, the SSA did a study and determined that there were up to 800,000 mis-matched social security accounts, many of which were workers using non-work social security cards, or worse, using stolen social security numbers. Meanwhile, estimates of the SSA are that by 2050 only 300,000 Mexican workers in the U.S. would be in the system at a cost projection of $650 million annually.† There is another argument used, though not brought up in the dialogue on either day of the lecture. The argument has to do with those who break into our nation with NO paperwork†¦including paperwork proving their citizenship in their home country. Now, this may prove a delicate predicament for some. However, I do believe it is not something new to our government’s immigration enforcement agencies. Surely, if one looks hard enough, there is a way to determine where someone originally came from. If you have a real name for a person, surely you can trace it back to family or friends in the native land with a bit of work and willing participation under the right motivation. If you think about it, anyone could conveniently ‘lose their papers’ and use the aforementioned argument otherwise. During the final session of the Lecture’s first day, I addressed Dr. Daisy Machado’s mischaracterization of the Minuteman movement and other organizations in the fight for secure borders. In my addressing her I said that I hoped her words were the result of her ignorance of the true foundation for the current movement to secure our borders, and not just some misleading attempt to besmirch true patriots in favor of criminal trespassers. She made much about how arguments are ‘couched’†¦I called her on that point as she never refers to illegal immigrants as illegal immigrants, she only ever used the term immigrants. She did have to acquiesce to a degree when I stated that if you do not have the required paperwork to prove you belong somewhere that you are breaking the law! She claimed that the Minutemen were racists with violent tendencies who were against immigrants. She showed undocumented ‘evidence’ of violence and racist remarks by people supposedly part of the Minuteman movement. None of the things she displayed on the power point had ANY reference by which one can verify the claims made. Furthermore, â€Å"Minutemen† is more a nebulous term now, though there is the Minuteman Project and the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps, the latter of which I am a part, and stated such to the entire body of students and staff who were present. The Minutemen I associate with are neither racist nor violent, though we will protect our borders by whatever legal means necessary. Dr. Machado was very careful to never mention the violence committed just in the last year or so by illegals who have invaded our nation, nor of the disproportionate amount of violent offender prison population who are illegals. No mention was made of the U.S. Border Patrol agents who have been murdered or who have nearly lost their lives, nor of the four officers in Laredo murdered by members of MS-13 who entered illegally. A fair and balanced portrayal of violence and illegal immigration? I think not. Dr. Machado stated that I could not speak any more for the whole movement than she could for all immigrants. Well, I am the Public Relations Director for American Freedom Riders – San Antonio Brigade, a group of motorcycle riders intent on securing our nation’s borders, something the federal government refuses to do! I am also President of the San Antonio Chapter of the US Border Watch organization based in Houston, Texas. I am a former San Antonio Director for the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps., and former National Vetting officer for the same organization. I think I have a pretty solid grasp of the intent of the national security movement. Do some loose cannon folks do stupid things within some of these organizations? Yes! Does that mean you can tar and feather the whole organization for it, well, according to Dr. Machado, probably†¦but in reality, NO! Using her logic, I could simply say every illegal immigrant is a terrorist. I honestly do not believe that to be the case. The debate over illegal immigration and secure borders is, at its core, about national sovereignty. Ronald Reagan said it best, ‘A nation without borders is not a nation at all.’ This is especially true when two nations, who are vastly different in language and culture, share a large border as Mexico and the United States do. Let me now address this issue from a PROPER Scriptural basis as I promised to do earlier, which is not even close to what took place during the Rollins Lecture series. The notion of separate nations came from none other than God himself! We know this to be true simply by reading Genesis 11, as this is used as a judgment, though one could make a strong case that borders were created by God as early as the Garden of Eden. At the Tower of Babel God chose to confuse the languages of the people. We are told in Acts 17:26-27: That God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; that they should seek the Lord. Scripture makes clear that the purpose of the creation of nation-states is to, in some measure restrain Satan’s ability to create his kingdom on earth until the Lord’s timing as discussed in Revelations 17:17: For God hath put in their hearts to fulfill his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. But nation-states serve another purpose as well, to be Gods instruments on earth for meting out justice and providing protection for the people. (Deuteronomy 17:14-17) Let us now examine the following four passages from the Hebrew Bible a.k.a. the Old Testament: Leviticus 19:33-34: And if a stranger sojourns with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God. Exodus 22:21: Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Exodus 23:9: Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Deuteronomy 10:19: Love ye therefore the stranger: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Sadly, many Christians read no further than this and have decided this was the totality of the Christian response to illegal immigrants. People without respect for our nation’s borders believe THIS is how we are to treat the illegal immigrants who have willingly invaded our nation. The problem is, many Christians are sadly lacking in their exegetical skills, therefore do not ‘rightly divide the word of truth’ (2 Timothy 2:15). In other words, they do not fully understand the context of the passages in terms of who is speaking and who is the audience being spoken to. If one is going to use Scripture to defend a position, it rather helps to know how to do it in a Godly manner. God requires us to use His word properly, without adding or taking away from it, even if only in our own sometimes fallible interpretations. A stranger that sojourns with you or lives with you does not have a single solitary thing to do with illegal immigrants. You can sojourn with strangers on a Greyhound bus. This does not make THEM or YOU illegal immigrants. The true correlation is that the children of Israel were strangers in Egypt. Thats why they were to treat their own strangers well, because they knew what it is like to be strangers in a foreign land. To be a â€Å"stranger† (The Hebrew word is Ger) is to be a foreigner. The children of Israel were invited into Egypt and, at first anyway, were honored guests. They of course were oppressed by later rulers who never knew Joseph, but they were certainly not in Egypt illegally. The Hebrews were not in any way violating Egyptian law. In fact, they were commanded not to offend their hosts in any way (Genesis 46:28-34). Clearly, stranger does not equal illegal immigrant from a Biblical perspective. Even when the term alien is used in the Bible, it seems to have the exact same meaning as stranger. God loves the stranger, were told. You should, too. They should be treated with respect and dignity. They should not be mistreated. These foreigners should be given food and clothing when they are in need. Thats the clear message of the Bible, treat law-abiding foreigners and immigrants with love and compassion. The immigrants and strangers of the Bible were expected to obey the Hebrew laws, though they were exempt from some. They were treated differently than the children of Israel in that they could not own property; they could be bought as slaves (though most slaves were more like indentured servants) and charged interest on loans. Only if these immigrants and strangers were fully converted as Jews, and that included circumcision, could they be landowners, partake of the Passover and be fully integrated into the nation of Israel. The strangers of the Bible were expected to fully assimilate into the Hebrew religion and culture before they could receive all the blessings and all the responsibility of full citizenship. These godly instructions were meant not just for the judges and kings of Israel, but, more importantly, for the citizenry. These instructions are still relevant today. If we want to be compassionate to the strangers and immigrants of our world today, those law-abiding foreigners who desperately want to come to America and are patiently waiting their turn, we need to be certain they dont get squeezed out unfairly by those who broke the law and pushed ahead of them in line. Certainly, we cannot mistreat or abuse lawbreakers. Many of these have broken the law with honorable intentions of bettering the lives of their families. We as Christians must remember they are human beings, and as such must be accorded proper dignity. Nevertheless, these lawbreakers are called illegal immigrants for a reason; they came across OUR borders uninvited! They have in essence committed breaking and entering into our great HOME land. They are not just strangers; they are trespassers. They need to go back home and get in line like everyone else waiting to enter our country lawfully. The mercy of the Christian faith is actually in allowing them the opportunity to come back legally in the first place after having made the attempt illegally. When we engage governments who are oppressing their people, we should verifiably ensure that basic human rights are protected. We cannot continue to say one thing and do another with regard to aid and sanctions in situations where we have chosen to be committed. While we are not able to save the planet from all its ills and fix every problem, we are under no obligation from God to meet the needs of everyone, nor give refuge to every victim of injustice, nor bring them into our homeland, nor make their own nation a democracy. God has allowed people to be born where they were. All may help others at will insofar as possible and desired, individually or corporately through the local church (the only institution ordained by God for the purpose of Christian work) as led by the Holy Spirit. As Christians, we are obligated to spread the gospel, and compelled by the Holy Spirit to share the love of the Lord in many ways. God does NOT obligate Christians to balance the world’s population according to someone’s idea of equal opportunity for anything other than the gospel. That is God’s job and He alone will do exactly that in HIS time! EMAIL: skyskyrider@hotmail.com USERNAME: skyrider3277 Research Papers on A Christian White Man's View On ImmigrationThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This Nice19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XQuebec and CanadaComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoWhere Wild and West MeetCapital PunishmentAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeUnreasonable Searches and Seizures

Monday, November 4, 2019

Response to Ethan Watters article in the New York Times The Essay

Response to Ethan Watters article in the New York Times The Americanization of Mental Illness why does America make mental il - Essay Example Why America makes mental illness socially unacceptable or not is a long heated debate and is explained in detail. If we are able to globalize Big Mac burgers and Nike shoes, then it doesn’t seem very difficult to have same kind of illness influence around the world in other cultures. I do believe that if we can globalize clothing, restaurants, and products, then it’s not too far of a stretch that with the meshing of cultures we could also globalize our illnesses. This article explains anorexia and depression are forms of Western Illnesses and they are spreading around in various parts of the world where they were initially not described as common part of illness. The article explains us that it is because we see these medical disorders in other cultures, that is why we decide to treat them in the same way that they would b treated in Western world. However the article doesn’t seem to be concerned about the illnesses that were found in United States. This article further explains that helping those who are mentally disable is completely misleading as one shoe cannot fit everyone. According to United States, people who are suffering from mental disorders are being imposed with economic stress. This in turn acts as a negative impact on the most fruitful years of work. This not only affects the individual but its family and mainly the society bringing great economic loss. This is also one of the reasons why United States make mental illness socially unacceptable. Stigmatizers usually assume that an individual who is stigmatized will eventually engage in immoral behavior towards others. It further describes that patients with mental disorders place great pressure on the society and are a source of potential danger towards citizens living around and the society on a whole. This dangerousness of the mentally ill people usually occurs due to poor habits that were previously inculcated in them. Mentally ill people are not only a threat for themselve s but they also lack certain human qualities that a normal human being has. It is because, mental illness is not related to ones will or within one’s control but it is a biological foundation that will remain out of control of an individual. However, Professor Bennett Leventhal of the University of Illinois Medical Center argued that this perspective is at odds with the campaign’s intent, which was to â€Å" ‘†¦speak to the point that these are real diseases and if you don’t do something they can consume your child’ † (as cited in Kaufman, 2007). This mental illness aids in social exclusion and also impedes recovery. Mental illness is an experience that is extremely isolating. This isolation can further be worsened if it gets combined with other experiences of isolation and social stigma. People get socially isolated and enter its vicious cycle after they are diagnosed with their mental disorder. This diagnosis is also disturbing as it n ot heals an individual back to normal but it further deteriorates the situation and leads to greater isolation from society. This mental illness damages the society as whole because it proves difficulties in maintaining relationships, maintaining daily tasks and informal and formal networks. As we move further, there are laws that also highlights the low significance of mentally ill people in the society and the laws that are specially derived for such

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Outline and discuss the evolution of CSR( Corporate Social Essay

Outline and discuss the evolution of CSR( Corporate Social Responsibility), including its history, role in the financial crisis and prospects for the future. Support your answer with examples - Essay Example 141). However, there are some people who prefer to remain silent. Despite this variation, the final objective of a decent and humane society has been acknowledged as one in which the corporate sector sustains the environment and conserves resources (Robins, 2008, p. 337). Moreover, CSR has the capacity to contribute to the environmental and social sustainability of business (Manske and Frey, 2006, p. 11). With regard to businesses that apply emerging technologies, the forestalling and management of the wider social impacts of these technologies assume importance. A number of enabling technological solutions have been facilitated by nanoscale science and technology (NST). These solutions could result in unprecedented innovations in several sectors of the economy, such as healthcare, electronics and sustainable energy (Groves et al., 2011, p. 525). As a consequence of this potentiality, NST has raised concerns regarding its ethical, legal and social influences (Frewer et al., 2011, p. 271). There are several issues related to nanotechnologies, and attempts to address these problems have been limited. For instance, there are important knowledge gaps regarding the probable effects of nanomaterials upon the environment and health. Moreover, nanomaterials derive their importance from several traits. One of these is their enhanced reactivity. Some of these characteristics can produce negative consequences on accidental release and exposure to these substances (Groves et al., 2011, p. 525). The early definitions of CSR had focused upon what constituted the social responsibility of a company, and the reasons for rendering them socially responsible. These definitions had also regarded CSR to be the same as the philanthropic and voluntary acts of business organisations that had been aimed at addressing the drawbacks in society and at benefiting the disadvantaged sections thereof (Mishra and Suar, 2010, p.

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Realism And Its Role In The Novel Farewell To Arms Annotated Bibliography

Realism And Its Role In The Novel Farewell To Arms - Annotated Bibliography Example This novel applies a prose form that explains events as they occur, describing the characters with a simple and clear language that does not call for further analysis (Corkin, 86). The novel uses language in a form that is easier to understand, making its language use, a reality. While reading the novel, the story flows as if it was being narrated orally (Lewis, 55). This fully depicts the realistic application of language diction. Considering that simple and common language is the major aspect of realism, this novel qualifies the style by applying common language that is easily comprehensible (Furst, 105). The essence of realism is to eliminate all situations where the reader will be forced to think deeply, to come up with the meaning of a literary work (Lehan, 33). The novel is based on the actual happenings during the war, making it a realistic narration of events and occurrences (Monteiro,

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Salaah, the second pillar of Islam Essay Example for Free

Salaah, the second pillar of Islam Essay In this project I will propose to deal with one of the most important major exercises of faith as laid down by Islam. This is prayer (Salaah). Salaah is the second pillar of Islam. It refers to the five compulsory daily prayers. Salaah is the most special act of worship, which a Muslim can do for Allah. The word Salaah, itself, literally means Connection. So the act of Salaah is our way of making a connection with our Lord, Allah. There are many versus of the Quran and many sayings of the blessed Prophet which call us to this important act. We offer Salaah to remember Allah. It brings us closer to Him. The Quran says: Indeed, I am Allah; there is no god except Myself; so worship Me and establish Salaah to remember Me. (20:14) Islam is known as the foundation of Religion. After accepting the truth of the Shahadah, Salaah is the doorway to knowledge. Salaah is the key to paradise. Allah reminds us in the Quran of the importance of Salaah again and again, telling us everything about it from the rewards of it to the punishments of it. The word Ibadah comes from the Arabic Abd, which means slave or servant. Man is a born subject and servant of Allah. When he turns to Allah with humility and devotion, he performs an act of Ibadah. In Islam, every good deed performed to seek the pleasure of Allah is an act of worship. One example of Ibadah is prayer (Salaah).The Salaah, which is the subject of this project, is an essential part of Ibadah. The Prophet (S.A.W) is reported to have said: Salaah is the pillar of Islam and whosoever abandons it, demolishes the very pillar of religion. Prayer is the second pillar of Islam. It refers to the five daily compulsory prayers. Any Muslim who fails to observe his prayers and has no reasonable excuse is committing a major sin. This is a very grave sin because it is not only against God, but is also against the nature of man. The benefit man can get from praying is immeasurable. Here are some explanations of the effectiveness of the Islamic prayer: 1. It strengthens the belief in the Existence and Goodness of God. 2. It purifies the heart and comforts the soul. 3. It keeps man close to good and decent actions and away from bad and evil actions. This is the Islamic prayer and that is what it can do for man. The best way to understand Salaah is to perform it and then one will really know what it really means. There are certain conditions regarding prayer. The offering of prayer is obligatory upon every Muslim whether male or female if they are: 1. Sane and responsible. 2. Relatively mature, normally about fourteen. Parents should advise their children at a young age so as they grow older they are used to praying Salaah. 3. Free from serious sickness. Prayer is not valid till the following requirements are fulfilled: 1. Performing the ablution (Wudu), which will be explained later. 2. Purity of your whole body, the clothes worn on it, and the ground used for prayer from all kinds of dirt and impurity. 3. Dressing properly in such a way as to meet the moral regulations. 4. Declaring the intention of prayer (Niyyah) by both heart and tongue whenever possible. 5. Facing the right direction of Qiblah, the direction of the Kabah at Mecca. There are many ways to decide the direction, if a person cant tell the direction he should follow his best judgement. Every Muslim, male or female, must offer at least five daily prayers on time, if there is no reasonable excuse, or temporary delay, they are: 1. The Early Morning Prayer (Fajr), which may be offered any time after the dawn and before sunrise, a total period of about two hours. 2. The Noon Prayer (Zuhr). This prayer may be offered after midday until afternoon. 3. The Mid-Afternoon Prayer (Asr), which begins right after the Noon prayer time and extends to sunset. 4. The Sunset Prayer (Maghrib). The time of this prayer begins immediately after sunset and extends till the end of daylight. Normally it extends over a period of one hour and twenty to thirty minutes. 5. The Evening Prayer (Isha), which begins at night and extends till midnight or dawn. Fajr 2 Sunnah, 2 Fard Total = 4 rakah Zuhr 4 Sunnah, 4 Fard, 2 Sunnah, 2 Nafl Total = 12 rakah Asr 4 Sunnah*, 4 Fard Total = 8 rakah Maghrib 3 Fard, 2 Sunnah, 2 Nafl Total = 7 rakah Isha 4 Sunnah*, 4 Fard, 2 Sunnah, 2Nafl, 3 Witr, 2 Nafl Total = 17 rakah These five prayers are the minimum requirement for a Muslim. We must try to offer Salaah at the right time and make every effort not to miss our Salaah. If you miss your Salaah, you must do it at the first opportunity. Performing a missed Salaah after its proper time is called Qada. We must make up our Fard Salaah. Before we can begin to perform Salaah, we must first prepare ourselves. This preparation includes making sure we are clean. We do this by carrying out Wudu. These are the steps to take: 1. Make Niyyah (intention) saying the Tasmiyah (Basmalah or Bismillah). 2. Then wash both hands up to the wrists three times making sure that water has reached between the fingers. 3. Put a handful of water into the mouth and rinse it thoroughly three times. 4. Sniff water into the nostrils three times to clean them and then wash the tip of the nose. 5. Wash the face three times from right ear to left ear and from forehead to throat. 6. Wash the right arm, and then left arm, thoroughly from wrist to elbow three times. 7. Move the wet palms of both hands over the head, starting from the top of the forehead to the neck. 8. Rub the wet fingers into the grooves and holes of both ears and also pass the wet thumbs behind the ears. 9. Pass the backs of the wet hands over the nape. 10. Wash both feet to the ankles starting from the right foot and making sure that water has reached between the toes and all other parts of the feet. At the end of all the steps, recite: Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluh. I testify that there is no god except Allah and He is One and has no partner and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. This completes the process of Wudu. You should repeat your Wudu after: 1. Natural discharges 2. Flow of blood or pus from any part of the body. 3. Full mouth vomiting. 4. Falling asleep or losing consciousness. 5. Touching the sexual organs. Adhan When the time for Salaah comes, it is the practice of the Muslim community to announce from the masjid that prayer-time has come. This melodic and enchanting call is called the Adhan. A man called a Muadhdhin, or, prayer-caller, is chosen for his good voice to do this task. He faces the Qiblah (the direction towards the Kabah in Makkah). He raises his hands up to his ears and calls out: 1. Allahu akbar, Allah is the Greatest. 2. Allahu akbar, Allah is the Greatest. 3. Allahu akbar, Allah is the Greatest. 4. Allahu akbar, Allah is the Greatest. 5. Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah, I testify that there is no god except Allah. 6. Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah, I testify that there is no god except Allah. 7. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadur rasulullah, I testify that Muhammad is Allahs messenger. 8. Ash-hadu anna Muhammadur rasulullah, I testify that Muhammad is Allahs messenger. 9. Haiya alas salaah, Rush to Salaah. 10. Haiya alas salaah, Rush to Salaah. 11. Haiya alal falah, Rush to success. 12. Haiya alal falah, Rush to success. 13. Allahu akbar, Allah is the Greatest. 14. Allahu akbar, Allah is the Greatest. 15. La ilaha illallah, There is no god except Allah. Iqamah Iqamah is the second call to Salaah said inside the masjid at the beginning of Salaah in congregation. When the people praying Salaah stand in rows, the Muadhdhin says Iqamah which is the same as the Adhan except that after Haiya alal falah, the following words are added: 1. Qad qamatis salaah, Salaah has begun. 2. Qad qamatis salaah, Salaah has begun. Usually, Iqamah is said in a lower voice than Adhan. At this stage you should be ready to start saying your Salaah. Make sure you have Wudu, a clean body, clean clothes and a clean place. This is how you should do your Salaah: 1. Stand upright on your prayer mat facing the direction of the Qiblah. This position is called the Qiyam. 2. Say your Niyyah (intention) either verbally or in your mind. 3. Raise your hands up to your ears (women and girls up to their shoulders) and say Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest). This is called Takbiratul Ihram, meaning that all worldly things are now forbidden. 4. Place your right hand on your left hand just below the navel or on the chest (women and girls put their hands on their chest) and recite Thana. Audhu billahi minash shaitanir rajim, I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed Satan (Shaitan). Bismillahir rahmanir rahim, In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Kind. 5. Recite Suratul Fatihah (opening chapter) of the Quran. Then say, quietly or loudly: Amin. The recitation of al-Fatihah is a must in all prayers. 6. Recite any other passage from the Quran. 7. Bow down saying Allahu Akbar. Place your hands on your knees and say Subhana rabbiyal azim (Glory to my Lord, the Great) three times. This position is called Ruku. 8. Stand up from Ruku saying Sami allahu liman hamidah (Allah hears those who praise Him), followed by Rabbana lakal hamd (Our Lord, praise be to You). This is called Itidal as you return to the position of Qiyam (standing). 9. Prostate saying Allahu akbar, with your forehead, nose, palms of both hands, your knees and your toes touching the floor. Recite Subhana rabbiyal ala (Glory to my Lord, the Highest) three times. This position is called Sujud. Your arms should not touch the floor. 10. Get up from the floor saying Allahu akbar and sit upright with your knees bent and palms placed on them. After a moments rest prostrate again saying Allahu akbar and recite Subhana rabbiyal ala three times. Get up this position saying Allahu akbar. This completes one rakah or one unit of Salaah. The second rakah is performed in the same way, except that you do not recite Subhanaka Taawwudh (Audhu billahi) or Tasmiyah (Bismillah), then after the second prostration you sit upright and recite quietly at-Tashahhud. In a three-rakah Salaah (as in Maghrib) or a four-rakah Salaah (Zuhr,Asr and Isha) you stand up for the remaining rakah after Tashahhud. But for a two-rakah Salaah you remain seated after the second rakah and recite as-Salaah alan nabiy (blessings for the Prophet) or Darud. After this say the following dua: Rabbijalni muqimas salati wa min dhurriyati rabbana wa taqabbal dua. Rabbanaghfir li wa liwaalidaiya wa lilmu minina yawma yaqumul hisab. 11. Now turn your face to the right saying Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah and then to the left repeating the words. This completes the two-rakah Salaah. In the four-rakah Salaah of Zuhr, Asr and Isha, the whole procedure is repeated except that when you get up to complete the remaining two rakahs (one rakah in Maghrib and Witr) after Tashahhud, you only recite al-Fatihah in Fard prayers and no other Surah. In a four rakah Sunnah Salaah you should recite another Surah or part of the Quran after al-Fatihah. Jumuah (Friday) Prayer Beside the daily Salaah, the Friday prayer is also obligatory upon Muslim men. For Muslim women it is not obligatory, but is desirable if they are able to do so without upsetting their household work. The Friday Salaah is offered in congregation on Friday at Zuhr time. First the Imam delivers a sermon (Khutbah). Then he leads the congregation in a two rakat Salaah. After this two or more rakaat of Sunnah or Nafilah prayers are offered individually. The Eid Prayer There are two Eid or occasions of great festivity for Muslims. The first is called Eidul-Fitr or the festival of fast breaking. It is celebrated on the first day of the tenth Islamic month (Shawwal) following Ramadan, the month of fasting. It marks great thanks-giving for the Muslims all over the world. The second Eid is the Eidul-Adha or the festival of great sacrifice, which is observed on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah, the last Islamic month. The animals are sacrificed to celebrate the great sacrifice of the Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him), On both these Eids, Eid prayers are offered in congregation any time after sunrise and before noon. There is no Adhan (call for prayer) or Iqamah (second call before congregation). The Eid prayer consists of two rakaat (offered just as the two rakaat of Jumuah prayer are said) with six to sixteen additional Takbirs (ALLAHU AKBAR). You say three or more Takbirs in the second rakaat before you bow down for Ruku. The Imam (leader of the prayer) delivers a sermon (Khutbah) after the two rakaat Eid prayer unlike the Jumuah prayer when it precedes the prayer. The presence of all Muslims, women and children included is strongly recommended. By now you should have a very clear understanding of how important Salaah is, and why we have been recommended many times by the Prophet and Allah through the Quran and Hadith. Without prayer a Muslim is incomplete and he should realise this. However many young Muslims have chosen to go astray and follow the non-believers and their actions. May Allah guide us to the way of His Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and keep us away from going astray and following false desires. May Allah accept our prayers and grant us good rewards for them. To gather various types of information I used a few books that I thought would be most appropriate. I used the following books to extract information and include it in my project: 1. Islam Beliefs and Teachings (Ghulam Sarwar) 2. Islam in Focus (Hammudah Abdalati) 3. Salaah (The Muslim Prayer)